Martinique has the reputation for being the “intellectual" country of the West Indies. Martinique has been the inspiration of many writers throughout its history (Lafcadio Hearn, the poet and diplomat; André Breton, the surrealist writer, etc.), but the most important thing: the country has been the homeland of many poets and novelists who have influenced on the French literature. The clergyman Jean-Baptiste Labat was the first man who testified the richness of the country. Born in Paris in 1663, this priest, who was an engineer and a writer as well, created the first procedures for the manufacture of sugar during his long residency in the island. His work “Nouveau voyage aux isles de l'Amérique”, is a real bible for those who are interested in the colonial history of the West Indies.. René Maran was the first man born in the West Indies who won the Goncourt Prize at the beginning of the 20 th century with his novel Bathouala. The Caribbean black movement from the Spanish-speaking countries gathered African themes which are presented in an exotic way and tries to find its inspiration in the African and black identity. Although the négritude was born in France, Aimé Césaire from Martinique is considered one of its founders. Césaire’s poem “Return to My Native Land” (1939) is considered one of the classic works of this genre. Martinique is famous in the world of the arts thanks to the poet Césaire, a loyal friend of Léopold Sédar Senghor, former president of the Repúblic of Senegal and member of the French Academy.Césaire, who became famous for his work “Cahier d'un retour au pays natal”, is considered the poet of the négritude. He is the author of many poems and plays, as well as the author of the famous ”Discourse about Colonialism” . Césaire is also an outstanding political leader in Martinique: mayor from 1946 and deputy up to 1993. If Aimé Césaire was the guide, Edouard Glissant ( Renaudot Prize in 1958 for his work “La Lézarde”), who continued the theme of identity and conscience in the West Indies, has been the driving force of a whole generation of writers who has emerged around the theme of creolity. Glissant’s novels are about the Afro Caribbean heritage. Patrick Chamoiseau, published his book “Elegy to Creolity”, in 1989 which is an analysis of the Creole cultural heritage. This book was co-written with Jean Bernabé. And Raphäel Confiant, who is another important writer of this generation. In 1992 he won the Goncourt Prize with his novel “Texaco”.Raphaël Confiant, has won many prizes. Other writers as Vincent Placoly, Ina Césaire, Henri Corbin, Xavier Orville... keep alive the tradition of “Martinique, the land of writers”.