It was created under the fourth decree on November 19, 1889. The sword stands for justice. The central blue sphere frames the cluster of star of the Southern Cross. One big star representing the national colors lies around the sphere –green and yellow- as well as the nation’s federal union. The two plants are a coffee tree on the left and a tobacco stalk on the right, Brazil’s two major crops. The gold-striped background depicts the dawn of the republic and is shaped into a huge 20-point star. The date stamped on the ribbon corresponds to the proclamation of the Republic of Brazil.

National Symbols

The flag, the national anthem and the coat of arms are symbols and emblems of the Federal Republic of Brazil.

National Dance

Samba is the most popular dance in Brasil. Samba, male voice in portuguese (or samba), is the most characteristic music -and, with her, the dance- of the country, it´s a dance with african origin, it has a fast rythm and binary compass. Its african roots can be felt in it, wich found its first shelter in the region of Bahía, to jump later from streets to dance clubs in late XIX century(when it received an influence from maxixe) and was able to impose itself in the first half of the XX century; and to become acclimatized in the city of Río de Janeiro. It is here, in Río de Janeiro where Samba is develope such as we know her today, with a first sonorous document wich bylines from 1917: "Pelo Telefone" ("By Phone"), of Donga and Mauro de Almeida. In the first half of the XX century, the Samba had great precursors like José Barbosa da Silva. In 1928 its first school was born, wich means a clear expression of the Rio de Janeiro´s afro-brazilian communities, proud of their roots and their folklore. The name of that school was Deixa falar (Let me speak) and it was created on august, 12 atl Estácio (Río de Janeiro), encouraged by Ismael Silva, Armando Marçal, Rubens, and other. In 1932, the first extra-official parade of Samba schools was celebrated; later, during the carnival of 1935, the first official Samba parade was celebrated, this one was won by Portela school. In Europe and United States, the knowledge of this musical genre didn´t took place until the 40´s, thanks to the dance instead of the songs, with its characteristical movements and syncopated rythm 4 x 4. Overall, the reason of this musical modality´s succes is the result of the combination of several factors; of all them, the two most important are, without doubts, the carnival of Río de Janeiro and the triunph of the brazilian musicians in the whle world in the 60s and on, specially after the birth of the bossa-nova with Antonio Carlos Jobim, João Gilberto or Vinicius de Moraes. Before the birth of this succesful form of brazilian music, Samba had been divided into several subgenres, such as samba-canção, samba-enredo or samba-de-breque. With this breaking point, there are today schools of Samba allover Brasil, integrated by groups of dance, chant and performance. These groups show their artistic development level during the carnival festivities with the presentation of a certain theme in the right place, on a runway of 530 meters where the schools parade with their particular technique.

National Flora

The flower is called ipe-amarillo, and its scientific denomination is Tecoma chrysostricha.

National Sports

When the british Charles Miller disembarked in Brasil, in late last century, with a ball in order to introduce here the new game -football- wich was widespread in England, never imagined that a south american nation would become into the country of football. This sport was widespread like a fever and it, quickly, conquered the fields of elegant clubs and landscapes. British and their descendants founded the first teams, the first leagues, and eversince football became tha brazilian national passion. In the 20s, Brazil was already a power in South America. In the 30s, europeans were already fascinated with Domingos da Guia´s football, a defender with the attackers hability; with Leónidas da Silva, who achieved international fame; and with Friedreich, a finnest goal-scorer . However, the first world title would last in been obtained. Everything that was talented in brazilian football, was an administrative disorder. In the 30s, the creation of professionalism divided the clubs. Selections were disputing competitions abroad without been structured. The opportunity to conquer the great title came in 1950, when Brazil was the venue for the World Cup and built in Río de Janeiro the biggest stadium of the wolrd, Maracanã with capacity to receive 200.000 people. Nowadays, there are more than 8000 sport Clubs in the country and several stadiums including the Maracanã, wich can receive a lot of people. Brazil has contributed with great players of this sport, Pelé (Edson Arantes do Nascimento) is an example who is recognized all over the world, there is also Arthur Antunes Coimbra; some younger like Ronaldo Luiz Nazario da Lima, Donato Gama da Silva, José Roberto Gama de Oliveira, Vitor Barbosa Ferreira (Rivaldo), among other. Other popular sports are practiced and have had deserved appreciation and prominent athletes such as in athletics with players like Ademar Ferreira da Silva; motor racing with pilots such as Emerson Fittipaldi and Nélson Piquet, Volleyball, is a popular sport within men as well as women. It has valuable athletes and through history the female team as well as the male one have conquered medals in World Cups like the one won by the female team in 1991 and in the Panamerican games in 1999. The male team has also obtained remarkable results just as during the Olympics in 1992. The brazilina beach female volleyball duet has obtained world champions during the games in 1997. Tennis is also a highlighted sport in the country. In late 50s and early 60s, great results were obtain with the tennis player Maria Ester Bueno and, nowadays, there are Gustavo Kuerten and others. Brazil has obtained great results in boxing with Acelino de Freitas, or Popó, world champion. Brazilians are also remarkable in Remus, Sail, Jude and swimming , where they have conquered gold, silver and bronze medals in different modalities and competitions. There are other sports, wich making use of weather conditions and the coastal, are having succes just as Surf, Windsurf and free fly having every moment more participants.