General Geography

Constituted by the Los Andes mountain range, the Costa mountain range and the Guiana Highlands, with the intermediate-height formations of the Coriano system and the depressions of the Yaracuy and Lara states, where the cities of Barquisimeto and Carora are located. Also recognized is the topography of the low lands of the Maracaibo lake basin, of the Llanos, in the Orinoco delta system, and of the Casiquiare river plains, in the Venezuelan Amazon. The Venezuelan Andes are divided into the Perijá mountain range, with its highest point in the Tutari peak (3,750 m or about 12,303 ft) and in the Merida mountain range, where the country’s highest point, the Bolivar peak, is located (5,007 m or about 16,427 ft). On the north stands out the Costa mountain range, with the Naiguatá peak (2,765 m or some 9,071 ft). In the low-land formations stand out the high and low plains.

Geographical Extension

912,050 km² (about 352,144 sq. miles)

Geographical Division

Divided into 22 federal states, one Federal District and the Federal Dominions, which include 74 islands in the Caribbean Sea. The country is divided into nine regions, each made up of one or several states. These regions are: Capital, Central, Insular, Nororiental (northeastern), Guayana, Centro Occidental (mid-western), Zuliana, Los Andes, and Los Llanos. The states are made up of autonomous municipalities that constitute the basic units of the political territorial administration.


Lima to the north with the sea Caribbean, to the east with the ocean Atlantic and Guyana, to the south with Brazil and to the Southwest and west with Colombia.It is bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and Guyana, on the south by Brazil, and on the southwest and west by Colombia.


It has a wide coastline, which in the Caribbean Sea is 2,183 km long from Castilletes to the Paria promontory and with 1.008 km of continental riversides in the ocean Atlantic, from the Paria headland to Punta Playa, including the Gulf of Paria, Patos Island and the ocean front of the Orinoco Delta and adjacent islands, where low wooded, muddy and swampy coasts abound.


Venezuela has 1059 rivers, many of them navigable. Fluvial waters have a special importance. 74.5% of the rivers belong to the Atlantic Ocean slope and 20.7% to that of the Caribbean Sea. The remaining 4.5% pour their water into the Amazon river system. The presence of the Orinoco river is fundamental in the Venezuelan geography, both for its extension and for the quality and quantity of its water, accompanied by a great variety of natural resources in its basin, covering some 643,481 km2 (about 248,449 sq. miles) of Venezuelan territory. Among the most important rivers, there are: the Chama, Motatán, Escalante, Catatumbo, Apón, Limón, Tocuyo, Aroa, Neverí and Manzanares, the Padamo, Ventuari, Sipapo, Cuchivero, Caura, Aro, Caroní, Meta, Arauca, and Apure.


Venezuela has 208 natural water reservoirs. Notably among these is Lake Maracaibo (with a 91,310 km basin, of which14,310 belong to Colombia). The lake, with its 16,360 km2 (some 6,316 mi2) area, is Venezuela’s largest reservoir. Another lake worth noting is Lake Valencia, considered to be Venezuela’s only lake and one of the most famous worldwide.

National Flora

In the forests of the Costa and Andes mountain ranges, as well as in the sierras, stands out the presence of sweet cedar, jarillo or apamate, which are timber trees, as well as the presence of several species of palm trees.

National Animal

Among the indigenous animals there are seven species of felines: the puma, jaguar, ocelot and among the canines, the wild dog. The humid forests are inhabited by the long-haired anteater and another smaller species. There are 16 genera of monkeys scattered in the forest and in the low plains. In the humid places is the tapir; in the dense forests there is the cuchicuchi and the sloth. Among the rodents, there are several species of mice, the paca, the otter, the agouti, the cariacu, numerous squirrels and the Brazilian hare. Two species of peccary, as well as two species of deer. Among the marsupials, there are three species of opossum, and among the edentate, there is the armadillo. The manatee lives in the coast and in the Orinoco river. There are numerous species and varieties of bats, including vampire and fish-eating bats. Reptiles comprise some 1,200 living species. Among the batrachian there is the hylataurina, which is only 10 cm in length but bellows like a bull. Five different species of turtles and snakes exist. Varied birds adorn the environment, such as flamingos, pelicans, macaws, toucans, troupials (national bird), and the guiriri (one of the smallest).